"​In God / Good We Trust"
Truitt for President 2016
"Truth & Justice for All" ​
"World Peace & Prosperity"
"Universal Positive Changes for Future Generations"
"​Dr.Truitt Champions Human Rights and Ethical Values!"
Universal Code of Right Human Conduct​

Truth, Justice, Peace, Prosperity, and Dignity for All Good Human Beings​

THERE IS AN INNATE UNIVERSAL CODE OF RIGHT HUMAN CODE! This universal intellectual spirit guides and directs human behavior that results in optimum growth, health, and happiness!
 
“The Holy Spirit / "God" - does not divide people by age, gender, race, religion, language, tribe, nation, or political party. The Universal Incorporal Spirit that gives life, intelligence, and reason to all living things only judges a person by the quality of their spirit. The Great Spirit that gives us Life, Reason, Wisdom, and a Conscience is only concerned about whether our souls/spirits are Good or Evil. There are  many hybrid shade or variety of the human spirit!” – Paul E. Truitt, DVM
 
The time has come! Mankind has evolved to the point that we must live in peace and harmony with one another. God created man to make the world a better place - not to destroy it! All the people of the world need to live and work in harmony. It is time to end "Evil" and "injustice".

Universal Peace and Prosperity is now essential for human survival!!!!!
 
Rather than dwelling on weapons of mass destruction - all nations, people, languages, cultures, religions, and races need to unite with a common purpose to end government corruption and terroristic acts;  all individual and nations of the world must now focus on the common good of all inhabitants of the world.  

All human beings have a right to unrestricted growth, health, and happiness!​
Universal Declaration of Human Rights​

​Preamble of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights

Whereas recognition of the inherent dignity and of the equal and inalienable rights of all members of the human family is the foundation of freedom, justice and peace in the world, 

Whereas disregard and contempt for human rights have resulted in barbarous acts which have outraged the conscience of mankind, and the advent of a world in which human beings shall enjoy freedom of speech and belief and freedom from fear and want has been proclaimed as the highest aspiration of the common people, 


Whereas it is essential, if man is not to be compelled to have recourse, as a last resort, to rebellion against tyranny and oppression, that human rights should be protected by the rule of law, 


Whereas it is essential to promote the development of friendly relations between nations,


Whereas the peoples of the United Nations have in the Charter reaffirmed their faith in fundamental human rights, in the dignity and worth of the human person and in the equal rights of men and women and have determined to promote social progress and better standards of life in larger freedom,


Whereas Member States have pledged themselves to achieve, in cooperation with the United Nations, the promotion of universal respect for and observance of human rights and fundamental freedoms,  


Whereas a common understanding of these rights and freedoms is of the greatest importance for the full realization of this pledge, 


Now, therefore,  The General Assembly,  Proclaims this Universal Declaration of Human Rights as a common standard of achievement for all peoples and all nations, to the end that every individual and every organ of society, keeping this Declaration constantly in mind, shall strive by teaching and education to promote respect for these rights and freedoms and by progressive measures, national and international, to secure their universal and effective recognition and observance, both among the peoples of Member States themselves and among the peoples of territories under their jurisdiction. 


Articles of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights

Article 1 

All human beings are born free and equal in dignity and rights. They are endowed with reason and conscience and should act towards one another in a spirit of brotherhood. 

Article 2 

Everyone is entitled to all the rights and freedoms set forth in this Declaration, without distinction of any kind, such as race, colour, sex, language, religion, political or other opinion, national or social origin, property, birth or other status.
 
Furthermore, no distinction shall be made on the basis of the political, jurisdictional or international status of the country or territory to which a person belongs, whether it be independent, trust, non-self-governing or under any other limitation of sovereignty. 

Article 3 

Everyone has the right to life, liberty and security of person.
 
Article 4 

No one shall be held in slavery or servitude; slavery and the slave trade shall be prohibited in all their forms. 

ARTICLE  5 

No one shall be subjected to torture or to cruel, inhuman or degrading treatment or punishment.
  
Article 6 

Everyone has the right to recognition everywhere as a person before the law. 

Article 7 

All are equal before the law and are entitled without any discrimination to equal protection of the law. All are entitled to equal protection against any discrimination in violation of this Declaration and against any incitement to such discrimination. 

Article 8 

Everyone has the right to an effective remedy by the competent national tribunals for acts violating the fundamental rights granted him by the constitution or by law. 

Article 9 

No one shall be subjected to arbitrary arrest, detention or exile. 

Article 10 

Everyone is entitled in full equality to a fair and public hearing by an independent and impartial tribunal, in the determination of his rights and obligations and of any criminal charge against him.
 
Article 11 

1. Everyone charged with a penal offense has the right to be presumed innocent until proved guilty according to law in a public trial at which he has had all the guarantees necessary for his defense.

 2. No one shall be held guilty of any penal offence on account of any act or omission which did not constitute a penal offense, under national or international law, at the time when it was committed. Nor shall a heavier penalty be imposed than the one that was applicable at the time the penal offense was committed. 

Article 12 

No one shall be subjected to arbitrary interference with his privacy, family, home or correspondence, nor to attacks upon his honour and reputation. Everyone has the right to the protection of the law against such interference or attacks.
 
Article 13 

1. Everyone has the right to freedom of movement and residence within the borders of each State.

 2. Everyone has the right to leave any country, including his own, and to return to his country. 

Article 14 

1. Everyone has the right to seek and to enjoy in other countries asylum from persecution. 

2. This right may not be invoked in the case of prosecutions genuinely arising from non-political crimes or from acts contrary to the purposes and principles of the United Nations. 

Article 15 

1. Everyone has the right to a nationality. 

2. No one shall be arbitrarily deprived of his nationality nor denied the right to change his nationality. 

Article 16  

1. Men and women of full age, without any limitation due to race, nationality or religion, have the right to marry and to found a family. They are entitled to equal rights as to marriage, during marriage and at its dissolution. 

2. Marriage shall be entered into only with the free and full consent of the intending spouses. 

3. The family is the natural and fundamental group unit of society and is entitled to protection by society and the State. 

Article 17 

1. Everyone has the right to own property alone as well as in association with others. 

2. No one shall be arbitrarily deprived of his property. 

Article 18 

Everyone has the right to freedom of thought, conscience and religion; this right includes freedom to change his religion or belief, and freedom, either alone or in community with others and in public or private, to manifest his religion or belief in teaching, practice, worship and observance.
 
Article 19 

Everyone has the right to freedom of opinion and expression; this right includes freedom to hold opinions without interference and to seek, receive and impart information and ideas through any media and regardless of frontiers. 

Article 20 

1. Everyone has the right to freedom of peaceful assembly and association. 

2. No one may be compelled to belong to an association. 

Article 21 
 
1. Everyone has the right to take part in the government of his country, directly or through freely chosen representatives. 

2. Everyone has the right to equal access to public service in his country. 

3. The will of the people shall be the basis of the authority of government; this will shall be expressed in periodic and genuine elections which shall be by universal and equal suffrage and shall be held by secret vote or by equivalent free voting procedures. 

Article 22 

Everyone, as a member of society, has the right to social security and is entitled to realization, through national effort and international co-operation and in accordance with the organization and resources of each State, of the economic, social and cultural rights indispensable for his dignity and the free development of his personality.
 
Article 23 

1. Everyone has the right to work, to free choice of employment, to just and favourable conditions of work and to protection against unemployment. 

2. Everyone, without any discrimination, has the right to equal pay for equal work. 

3. Everyone who works has the right to just and favourable remuneration ensuring for himself and his family an existence worthy of human dignity, and supplemented, if necessary, by other means of social protection. 

4. Everyone has the right to form and to join trade unions for the protection of his interests. 

Article 24 

Everyone has the right to rest and leisure, including reasonable limitation of working hours and periodic holidays with pay. 
 
Article 25 

1. Everyone has the right to a standard of living adequate for the health and well-being of himself and of his family, including food, clothing, housing and medical care and necessary social services, and the right to security in the event of unemployment, sickness, disability, widowhood, old age or other lack of livelihood in circumstances beyond his control. 

2. Motherhood and childhood are entitled to special care and assistance. All children, whether born in or out of wedlock, shall enjoy the same social protection. 

Article 26 

1. Everyone has the right to education. Education shall be free, at least in the elementary and fundamental stages. Elementary education shall be compulsory. Technical and professional education shall be made generally available and higher education shall be equally accessible to all on the basis of merit. 

2. Education shall be directed to the full development of the human personality and to the strengthening of respect for human rights and fundamental freedoms. It shall promote understanding, tolerance and friendship among all nations, racial or religious groups, and shall further the activities of the United Nations for the maintenance of peace. 

3. Parents have a prior right to choose the kind of education that shall be given to their children. 

Article 27 

1. Everyone has the right freely to participate in the cultural life of the community, to enjoy the arts and to share in scientific advancement and its benefits. 

2. Everyone has the right to the protection of the moral and material interests resulting from any scientific, literary or artistic production of which he is the author. 

Article 28 

Everyone is entitled to a social and international order in which the rights and freedoms set forth in this Declaration can be fully realized. 

Article 29 

1. Everyone has duties to the community in which alone the free and full development of his personality is possible. 

2. In the exercise of his rights and freedoms, everyone shall be subject only to such limitations as are determined by law solely for the purpose of securing due recognition and respect for the rights and freedoms of others and of meeting the just requirements of morality, public order, and the general welfare in a democratic society. 

3. These rights and freedoms may in no case be exercised contrary to the purposes and principles of the United Nations. 

Article 30 

Nothing in this Declaration may be interpreted as implying for any State, group, or person any right to engage in any activity, or to perform any act, aimed at the destruction of any of the rights and freedoms set forth herein.
Universal Code of Right Human Conduct​

The highest aim of all human beings is growth, health, and happiness!!

 
"Character virtues pave the road to ultimate growth, health, and happiness!" - Paul E. Truitt, DVM

ETHOS: the character of an individual, culture, social group, community, state, and/or nation as manifested in their beliefs, spirit, morality, mentality, rationality, value system, principles, nature, standards, laws, and/or ethics.
 
All human beings of every race, religion, political parties, and culture have a common set of innate needs that motivate their behavior. The behavior of all human beings is also guided and directed by a natural universal intellectural spirit that is intrinsic to all healthy human beings.
 
Unlike the common innate needs of a person, the incorporal intellectural human spirit comes in two basic forms - the Form of the Good (Beauty and Perfection) & the Form of Evil. Since each person has the freedom to change spiritually, the human spirit comes in many varieties and shades of Good & Evil.

It is the RIGHT and DUTY of every human being to abolish Evil and to promote Good!!
 
A Good Spirit produces love, joy, peace, patience, kindness, goodness, faithfulness, gentleness, and self-discipline.  An Evil Spirit produces the polar opposites!
 
"The only thing that is constant is change!" A person, family, society, and nation cannot help but change; every person has "free will" - the choice of which ways they will change - for better or worse. We the People choose which ways our families, societies, or our nation will change. Only through good unbringing, education, and cultivation will a group of people change for the better.

Positive change requires "energeia" - which is the greek word for "work"!

Work ethics is necessary to develop all other character virtues!
Character virtues and work ethics pave the path to Growth, Health, and Happiness!
 
All things naturally tend to a state of disorder - and it naturally takes "work" to restore and maintain order. Furthermore, with todays technology, it is easy for any person with the will to change - to self-educate, to self-cultivate, and to build character virtues!
 
While "Morality" is about how an individual should best live their own life; Ethics is all about creating "right living" for all citizens. The divine purpose of ethics is for both the government and the citizens to become good and just. Ethics are about how the whole citizentry should best live, while politics and government is responsible for the common good of the whole community, state, nation, and all mankind.
 
Ethics is about what is beautiful and just. It starts with good upbringing; then, experiences in life (both good and bad) develop character.  A person of excellent character works from their core upbringing and adverse experiences to a higher understanding of what is good and just for the individual - and the community as a whole.
 
The highest aim of all human beings is growth, health, and happiness!!!!!
 
"Love is the gifting of oneself to meet the needs of another – with the growth, health, and happiness of the loved one as the ultimate concern." - Paul E. Truitt, DVM
 
Love is the fruit of a good spirit!! The most beautiful and perfect human spirits are gifts from the Universal Supreme Intellectial Spirit. A divine intellectual human spirit produces love, joy, peace, patience, kindness, generosity, goodness, faithfulness, gentleness, and self-control.
 
An "excellent human being" is a person good at living life - one who does it well and beautifully!!!
 
POSITIVE CHANGE:
 
The way to build good character is to first recognize one's bad behavior, bad habits, and character flaws; then replace them with good behavior, good habits, and character virtues. Any person with the will to do so, may development right behavior, habits, and character virtues. Good behavior consistantly practiced will turn into good habits; good habits passionately practiced will develop into a good and stable character; then, good behavior and habits become natural and voluntary.
 
Assuming character virtues involves conscious choice - free will. A good and stable disposition must be pursued and maintained with some effort or “energeia”. Good behavior - consistantly practiced - is a precondition for good character. Evil and unjust habits lead to a miserable life. Good habits are learned and become part of one’s character and experiences. Good habits and a stable character are necessary to effectively and efficiently meet the innate needs of a human being. Genuinely satisfied needs result in growth, health, and happiness!
 
Knowledge, experience, and right action will result in practical wisdoms. Adversity will either make or break a person. The highest types of virtue, imply having all the virtues of character at once, and these in turn imply not just good character, but a kind of “divine wisdom”.
 
Our forefathers were thought to be “demigods”, human beings with "divine spirits & wisdom”.
Universal Innate Human Needs Motivate Behavior​
A​ll 7.3 Billion plus Human Beings on Earth share the same innate human needs. In their infinite wisdom, the Divine Couple (Mother Nature and God the Father) made our innate human needs interpersonal and interdependent. Therefore, human beings need each other - and depend on each other - for survival, growth, health, well-being, and happiness!
 
Our behavior (good and bad) is motived by unsatified innate needs.
 
Frustrated needs (the inability to satisfy needs) cause aberrant behavior!!
 
Needs satisfied in healthy ways result in growth, health, and happiness.  Excellent chararter results from the growth, health, and well-being of the entire human being - including the body, heart (emotions/appetites/subconscious autopilot/belief system), mind/intellect, and soul/spirit.
 
Although human beings are given free will; there are "natural" consequences for bad behavior - and "natural" rewards for good behavior.
 
Good families, schools, societies, and nations teach their citizens how to meet their needs in proper and effective ways. 
 
Our innate human needs are​:
 
PHYSIOLOGICAL NEEDS:
 
 Physiological needs are the physical requirements for survival, growth, health, and happiness - clean air, water, food, shelter, clothing, exercise, touch, sex, warmth, etc. If these necessities are not available, the human body cannot function properly and will ultimately fail.
 
Physiological needs should be met first.
__________
 
SAFETY and SECURITY NEEDS:
 
When physical needs are sufficiently satisfied, the individual's unsatisfied safety needs dominate their behavior.
 
Due to extreme and overwhelming threats such as war, natural disaster, family violence, childhood abuse, acts of terrorism, etc. – people may (re-)experience post-traumatic stress disorder.
 
Economic safety is threated by economic crisis such as high debt, extreme poverty, and lack of work opportunities. Ecomonic security is often threatened by hostile work environments, lack of savings, no health or disability insurance, etc.
 
Children, and those without family and friends, generally have a greater need to feel safe.
 
Safety and Security needs include:
 
Freedom from want and fear
Financial and/or job security
Health and well-being of family and friends
Safe neighborhoods, schools & communities
Sufficient Wealth to Provide for Necessities
National Security
__________​
 
LOVE, AFFECTION, BELONGING & SOCIAL NEEDS:
 
After physiological and security needs, the third level of human needs, social needs, are also interpersonal and involves the need for acceptance, love, and affection. These needs are especially strong in childhood and can override the need for safety as witnessed in children and women who cling to abusive parents or spouses.
 
 All human beings needs honest, trustworthy, and faithful human relationships to adequately meet this level of needs. Many humans depend on animals to meet these needs!
As a practicing veterinarian for many years, I often observed these relationships.
 
Social groups may include clubs, co-workers, religious groups, professional organizations, sports teams, political groups, or even crime/terror organizations, mobs, and gangs.
 
Some examples of small social connections include family, friends, intimate partners, mentors, colleagues, and confidants.
 
Human beings need to be loved and acccepted. Many people become susceptible to loneliness, social anxiety, and clinical depression in the absence of love, affection, friendship, acceptance, group affiliation, and support.
_____________​
 
ESTEEM NEEDS:
 
All humans have a need for dignity - to be respected and honored; this also includes the need to have self-esteem and self-respect which are most important!!
 
Esteem represents the typical human need to be admired, recognized, and valued by others. People often engage in a profession or hobby to gain recognition - activities that give the person a sense of value.
 
 Low self-esteem, an inferiority complex, may result from imbalances during this level of the hierarchy of needs. People with low self-esteem often crave respect from others; they may feel the need to seek wealth, fame, or glory. However, great wealth, fame, and glory will not help the person to build self-esteem unless they humbly and intrinically feel good about themselves!
 
Psychological imbalances such as depression and apathy can hinder the person from obtaining a higher level of self-esteem and self-respect. The best way for a person to overcome depression and lack of self-respect is to make positive changes in their behavior, habits, and character.
 
All people have a need for self-respect and self-esteem that come from a good and stable character. Abraham Maslow noted two versions of esteem needs: a "lower" version and a "higher" version. The "lower" version of esteem is the need for respect from others. This may include a need for status, recognition, fame, prestige, and attention. The "higher" version manifests itself as the need for self-esteem. For example, the person may have a need for strength, competence, mastery, self-confidence, independence, and freedom. This "higher" version takes precedence over the "lower" version because it relies on an inner competence established through experience. 
A person cannot avoid or run from themself!
 
Deprivation of esteem needs may lead to an inferiority complex, weakness, and helplessness.
Character assassination is often used by psychopaths to gain control over their victims.
 
Innate human needs are interdependent; therefore, some needs must be meet before others can be fully satisfied. 
_______________
 
SELF-ACTUALIZATION NEEDS:
 
This level of needs refers to the need a person has to realize their full potential - to become the best that they can be.  Some individuals focus on this need very specifically. For example, one individual may have the strong desire to become an ideal parent; another, may desire to be a great athlete; and, others may desire to be an outstanding farmers, gardeners, pumbers, scientists, nurses, soldiers, truck drivers, doctors, politicians, teachers, leaders, inventors, artists, etc.
 
Many others in our capitalistic society, may selfishly seek fame, power, and great wealth to the detriment of others. 
 
Selfish people are never intrinsically satisfied. Greed grows into a destructive lust for more!
 
As previously mentioned, Maslow believed that to understand this level of need, the person must not only achieve the more essential needs, but master them by learning how to meet them in highly effective and efficient ways!
 
The good news is that with todays technology, it is easy for any person with work ethics and a will to change - to self-educate, self-cultivate, and build character virtues!
______________​
 
COGNITIVE NEEDS: THE NEED TO KNOW AND UNDERSTAND
 
The need to know and understand is one of the strongest human needs. Human beings have a need to know the truth, the whole truth, and nothing but the truth; however, some mean-spirited people have an aberrant desire to lie, deceive, manipulate, and control other human beings for personal gain: unfair advantage; unjust enrichment; undeserved esteem; control; and, power. 
Corrupt politicians and religious leaders use these tactics to exploit, suppress, and oppress others for their own personal gain and vainglory!
 
Honesty and integrity builds trust; trust is essential to any relationship!!!
_____________
 
AESTHETIC NEEDS:
 
The need for natural beauty, law, variety, order, harmony, and perfection is strong in most people. Even very young children recognize beauty and perfection. As we grow older and become more effective and efficient in meeting lowers needs, we learn to appreciate variety, order, harmony, and symmetry.
 
Nature satisfies our aesthetic needs best!
 
Ancient philosophers refered to the beauty and perfect in a thing as the "Form of the Good"!
_____________
 
ALTRUISTIC NEEDS:
 
Altruism, love, and charity are the ultimate perfection of the human spirit/soul!
 
True altruism is rare!
 
An altruistic person freely meets the needs of others without desiring anything in return!
_____________​
 
SPIRITUAL NEEDS:
 
All human beings, in every culture, believe in a Supreme Being/Power/Spirit!
All human beings have a need to know and understand this Supreme Intellectual Spirit.
 
Most advanced civilization believe that a incorporal spirit/energy is necessary for life; and, that a Unversal Intellectual and "Life-giving" Spirit is innate in all living things.
 
Whether we like it or not - this Universal Intellectual Spirit has ultimate control over life and death. 
Finally, this Supreme Spirit has engrained a universal code of conduct in all human beings - complete with natural intrinsic rewards and consequences! 
 
Universal Character Virtues & Code of Right Human Conduct​
FRUITS OF THE HOLY SPIRIT

A good-spirited person produces - love, joy, peace, patience, kindness, goodness, faithfulness, gentleness, and self-control.

There is no divine, natural, or human laws against the produce of a good spirit!
 
VIRTUE is "a good habit consonant with our human nature."
 
A​ll 7.3 Billion plus Human Beings on Earth share the need to meet their innate human needs in effective and efficient ways. 

The divine human spirit (conscience) guides and directs all healthy human beings. 
A healthy conscience knows the difference between right and wrong behavior - good and evil acts. An unhealthy conscience/spirit has no internal spiritual guidance or direction; it follows no rules or laws that will inhibit bad or unjust behavior; and, it feels no guilt or remorse.
 
Universal Good - Character Virtues - includes the physical, mental, moral, and spiritual qualities of an individual, group, or nation.

The moral and ethical excellence and stability of a person, group, or nation - guides and directs their behavior, actions, and deeds.
_________​_

UNIVERSAL CARDINAL VIRTUES
 
1.  Prudence: also described as wisdom and practical judgment, is the ability to make proper discisions and to take appropriate actions at a given time.
 
2.  Justice: also considered as fairness, the most extensive and most important virtue.
 
3.  Temperance: also known as restraint, is the practice of self-control, abstention, moderation, and tempering of the appetites.
 
4.  Courage: also named fortitude, forbearance, strength, endurance, and the ability to confront fear, uncertainty, and intimidation.
___________
 
THEOLOGICAL VIRTUES
 
Three Theological Virtues are faith, hope, and charity (love).
 
The Seven Cardinal Virtues or refers to the union of the above cardinal and theological virtues.
 
Seven heavenly virtues are identified as chastity, temperance, charity, diligence, patience, kindness, and humility.

Practicing them is said to protect one against temptation from the seven deadly sins.
 
1.  Chastity (Purity, knowledge, honesty, wisdom) – opposite of Lust
2.  Temperance (humanism, justice, honour, abstinence) – opposite of Gluttony
3.  Charity (goodwill, benevolence, generosity, sacrifice) – opposite of Greed
4.  Diligence (persistence, effort, rectitude) – opposite of Sloth/Apathy
5.  Patience (mercy, sufferance) - opposite of Wrath
6.  Kindness (satisfaction, loyalty, compassion, integrity) – opposite of Envy
7.  Humility is seeing yourself as you really are. Respect is seeing others as they really are. Pride is opposed to Humility and Respect.
 
Catholic tradition follows the Vulgate in listing 12 fruits of the spirit: charity, joy, peace, patience, kindness, goodness, generosity, gentleness, faithfulness, modesty, self-control, chastity.
 
Love (Greek: agape, Latin: caritas): Agape denotes a really undefeatable benevolence and unconquerable goodwill that always seeks the highest of the other, no matter what one does. It is selfless love that is given freely without asking anything in return, and does not consider the worth of its object. Agape describes the unconditional love God has for the world.
 
Paul describes love in 1 Corinthians 13: Love is patient, love is kind. It is not jealous, (love) is not pompous, it is not inflated, it is not rude, it does not seek its own interests, it is not quick-tempered, it does not brood over injury, it does not rejoice over wrongdoing but rejoices with the truth. It bears all things, believes all things, hopes all things, and endures all things.
Love never fails.
Love to the "budding point" from which all the other fruits come, referencing 1 John 4:16, "God is love, and whoever remains in love remains in God and God in him."
___________
 
BUDDHISM
 
"Three Higher Trainings" in Mahayana Buddhism: higher moral discipline, higher concentration, and higher wisdom. "Higher" here refers to the fact that these trainings that lead to liberation and enlightenment are engaged in with the motivation of "renunciation" or "the pleasure of renunciation" while also conveying more specifically "giving up the world and leading a holy life" or "freedom from lust, craving and desires."
 
THE EIGHTFOLD PATH:
 
"The Eightfold Path" - According to Pali and Chinese canons, right view, right intention, right speech, right action, right livelihood, right effort, and right mindfulness are used as the support and requisite conditions for the practice of right concentration.
 
"Wisdom", sometimes translated as "discernment" at its preparatory role, provides the sense of direction with its conceptual understanding of reality - a gift from a Higher Power.
It is designed to awaken the faculty of penetrative understanding to see things as they really are.
At a later stage, when the mind has been refined by training in moral discipline and concentration, and with the gradual arising of right knowledge, it will arrive at a superior right view and right intention.
__________
 
GIFTS OF THE HOLY SPIRIT
 
Wisdom: is the capacity to love spiritual things more than material ones.
 
Understanding: A person with understanding is not confused by the conflicting messages in our culture about the right way to live. The gift of understanding perfects a person's comprehension of the truth.
 
Right Judgement: with the gift of counsel/right judgment, we know the difference between right and wrong, and we choose to do what is right.
 
Courage: with the gift of fortitude/courage, we overcome our fear and are willing to take risks. A person with courage is willing to stand up for what is right in the sight of God, even if it means accepting rejection, verbal abuse, or physical harm. The gift of courage allows people the firmness of mind that is required both in doing what is right and in enduring evil.
 
Knowledge: with the gift of knowledge, we understand the meaning of God/Good. The gift of knowledge is more than an accumulation of facts, it also helps us to choose the right path through life.
 
Piety: with the gift of piety/reverence, we have a deep sense of respect for God/Good. A person with reverence recognizes our total reliance on God and comes before God with humility, trust, and love.
__________
 
THE PRIMARY ROMAN VIRTUES, BOTH PUBLIC AND PRIVATE
 
"Spiritual authority" – was considered to be essential for a magistrate's ability to enforce law and order.
 
"Humour" – ease of manner, courtesy, openness, and friendliness.
 
"Perseverance" – military stamina, as well as general mental and physical endurance in the face of hardship.
 
"Mercy" – mildness and gentleness, and the ability to set aside previous transgressions.
 
"Dignity" – a sense of self-worth, personal self-respect and self-esteem.
 
"Discipline" – considered essential to military excellence; also connotes adherence to the legal system, and upholding the duties of citizenship.
 
"Tenacity" – strength of mind, and the ability to stick to one's purpose at hand without wavering.
 
"Frugality" – economy and simplicity in lifestyle, without being miserly.
 
"Gravity" – a sense of the importance of the matter at hand; responsibility, and being earnest.
 
Honestas – "respectability" – the image that one presents as a respectable member of society.
 
"Humanity" – refinement, civilization, learning, and generally being cultured.
 
"Industriousness" – hard work.
 
"Justice" – sense of moral worth to an action.
 
"Dutifulness" – more than religious piety; a respect for the natural order: socially, politically, and religiously. Includes honoring other human beings, especially in terms of business relations, considered essential to an orderly society.
 
"Prudence" – foresight, wisdom, and personal discretion.
 
"Wholesomeness" – general health and cleanliness in body, heart, mind, and soul.
 
"Sternness" – self-control, considered to be tied directly to the virtue of gravitas.
 
"Truthfulness" – honesty in dealing with others; a person living an honest life was bound to be virtuous.
 
"Manliness" – valor, excellence, courage, character, and worth.
__________
 
JUDAISM
 
Loving God and obeying His laws are central to Jewish conceptions of virtue. Wisdom is not only the source of virtue but is depicted as the first and best creation of God (Proverbs 8:12-31).
 
A classic articulation of the Golden Rule came from the first century: "That which is hateful to you, do not do to your fellow. That is the whole Torah. The rest is commentary; go and learn."
__________
 
CHRISTIANITY
 
The three theological virtues are faith, hope and love.
The same chapter describes love as the greatest of the three, and further defines love as "patient, kind, not envious, boastful, arrogant, or rude."

The Christian virtue of love is sometimes called charity.

Agape is used to contrast the love of God and the love of humankind from other types of love such as friendship or physical affection.
 
Christian scholars frequently add the four Greek cardinal virtues (prudence, justice, temperance, and courage).
 
The Bible mentions additional virtues, such as those found in Galatians 5:22-23: "By contrast, the Fruit of the Spirit it is benevolent love, joy, peace, longsuffering, kindness, benevolence, faithfulness, gentleness, and self-control. There is absolutely no law against such a thing."
 __________

ISLAM

 "The Prophet Muhammad said, "Piety/virtue is good manner, and sin is that which creates doubt and you do not like people to know it."
 
“I went to Messenger of Allah and he asked me: “Have you come to inquire about Piety/virtue?” I replied in the affirmative. Then he said: “Ask your heart regarding it. Piety/virtue is that which contents the soul and comforts the heart, and sin is that which causes doubts and perturbs the heart, even if people pronounce it lawful and give you verdicts on such matters again and again.”
 
For Muslims fulfilling the human rights are valued as an important building block of Islam.
 
According to Muslim beliefs: Allah will forgive individual sins -
but the bad treatment of humans and injustice with others will not be pardoned by Allah.
 __________

HINDUISM
 
Virtue is an evolving concept in ancient scriptures of Hinduism.

The essence, need and value of virtue is explained in Hindu philosophy as something that cannot be imposed, but something that is realized and voluntarily lived up to by each individual.

For example, "virtue and vice do not go about saying - here we are!; neither the Gods, Gandharvas, nor ancestors can convince us - this is right, this is wrong; virtue is an elusive concept, it demands careful and sustained reflection by every man and woman before it can become part of one's life.
 
Virtues lead to holy living; while vices lead to sin.
 
Virtues constitute a moral and ethical life.

Over time, new virtues were conceptualized and listed as ten virtues necessary for a human being to live a dharmic life: (courage), (forgiveness), (temperance), (non-covetousness/non-stealing), (inner purity), (control of senses), (reflective prudence), (wisdom), (truthfulness), (freedom from anger).
 
What is right and what is wrong - argues some virtues are not necessarily always absolute, but sometimes relational; for example, it explains a virtue such as Ahimsa must be re-examined when one is faced with war or violence from the aggressiveness, immaturity, or ignorance of others.
 ___________

BUDDHISM
 
Buddhist practice as outlined a progressive list of virtues:
 
Right View - Realizing the Noble Truths
Right Mindfulness - Mental ability to see things for what they are with clear consciousness
Right Concentration - Wholesome one-pointedness of mind
 
Buddhism's four ("Divine States") can be more properly regarded as virtues in the European sense. They are:
 
Loving kindness towards all; the hope that a person will be well; loving kindness is the wish that all sentient beings, without any exception, be happy.
 
Compassion; the hope that a person's sufferings will diminish; compassion is the wish for all sentient beings to be free from suffering.
 
Altruistic joy in the accomplishments of a person, oneself or other; sympathetic joy is the wholesome attitude of rejoicing in the happiness and virtues of all sentient beings.
 
Equanimity, or learning to accept both loss and gain, praise and blame, success and failure with detachment, equally, for oneself and for others.
Equanimity means not to distinguish between friend, enemy or stranger, but to regard every sentient being as equal.
It is a clear-minded tranquil state of mind - not being overpowered by delusions, mental dullness, or agitation.
 __________

BAHA'I FAITH
 
Virtues are direct spiritual qualities that the human soul possesses, inherited from God Himself.
 __________

DAOISM
 
"Virtue” is the sense of "personal character; inner strength; integrity", but semantically changed to moral "virtue; kindness; morality".

Note the semantic parallel for English virtue, with an archaic meaning of "inner potency; divine power" (as in "by virtue of") and a modern one of "moral excellence; goodness".
 
Virtues empower a person and a culture.

Humanity, piety, proper behavior, performance of rituals.

Goodness, virility, non-theistic philosophy.
 
The Daoist concept of De, compared to Confucianism, is more subtle, pertaining to the "virtue" or ability that an individual realizes by following the Dao ("the Way").

One demonstrates virtues.

One important normative value in much of Chinese thinking is that one's social status should result from the amount of virtue that one demonstrates, rather than from one's birth.
 
"He who exercises government by means of his virtue may be compared to the north polar star, which keeps its place and all the stars turn towards it."
 
In later periods, particularly from the Tang dynasty period, Confucianism as practiced, absorbed and melded its own concepts of virtues with those from Daoism and Buddhism.
__________ 

SAMURAI VIRTUE
 
'Virtue' in the four vows he makes daily:
 
Never to be outdone in the way of the samurai.
To be of good use to the master.
To be filial to my parents.
To manifest great compassion and act for the sake of Man.
___________
 
THE SEVEN VIRTUES OF THE BUSHIDO CODE
 
Rectitude
Courage
Benevolence
Respect
Honesty
Honor
Loyalty
 
Others that are sometimes added to these:
 
Filial piety
Wisdom
Care for the aged
 __________

PHILOSOPHERS' VIEWS
 
René Descartes
 
Virtue consists in the correct reasoning that should guide our actions.
Men should seek sovereign good, as this produces a solid blessedness or pleasure.
The sovereign good was pleasure, because virtue produces a spiritual pleasure that is better than bodily pleasure.
Happiness depends on the goods of fortune, Descartes does not deny that these goods contribute to happiness, but remarks that they are in great proportion outside one's own control, whereas one's mind is under one's complete control.
 
Living a life of Virtue, in accordance with Nature, will result in goodness and peace of mind.
 
Plato
 
Plato's The Republic argued that “in the world of knowledge the idea of good appears last of all, and is seen...to be the universal author of all things beautiful and right”. 
Contemplation was the route to appreciation of the Idea of the Good.
 
Immanuel Kant
 
In Kant's view, to be goodhearted, benevolent, and sympathetic is not regarded as true virtue.
The only aspect that makes a human truly virtuous is to behave in accordance with moral principles.
 
According to Kant, among all people with diverse temperaments, a person with melancholy frame of mind is the most virtuous whose thoughts, words and deeds are on the bases of principles.
 
Friedrich Nietzsche
 
Friedrich Nietzsche's view of virtue is based on the idea of an order of rank among people. Nietzsche promotes the virtues of those he calls "higher men", people like Goethe and Beethoven. The virtues he praises in them are their creative powers (“the men of great creativity” - “the really great men according to my understanding”.
According to Nietzsche these higher types are solitary, pursue a "unifying project", revere themselves and are healthy and life-affirming.
Because mixing with the herd makes one base, the higher type “strives instinctively for a citadel and a secrecy where he is saved from the crowd, the many, the great majority…”
 
The 'Higher type' also "instinctively seeks heavy responsibilities" in the form of an "organizing idea" for their life, which drives them to artistic and creative work and gives them psychological health and strength. The fact that the higher types are "healthy" for Nietzsche does not refer to physical health as much as a psychological resilience and fortitude.
 
And to keep control over your four virtues: courage, insight, sympathy, and solitude.
Because solitude is a virtue for us, since it is a sublime inclination and impulse to cleanliness which shows that contact between people (“society”) inevitably makes things unclean.
Somewhere, sometime, every community makes people – “base.”
 
Nietzsche also sees truthfulness as a virtue:
 
Genuine honesty, assuming that this is our virtue and we cannot get rid of it, we free spirits – well then, we will want to work on it with all the love and malice at our disposal and not get tired of ‘perfecting’ ourselves in our virtue, the only one we have left: may its glory come to rest like a gilded, blue evening glow of mockery over this aging culture and its dull and dismal seriousness!
 
Benjamin Franklin
 
Virtue will fight and destroy tyranny.
 
These are the virtues that Benjamin Franklin used to develop what he called 'moral perfection'.
He had a checklist in a notebook to measure each day how he lived up to his virtues.
 
Temperance: Eat not to Dullness. Drink not to Elevation.
 
Silence: Speak not but what may benefit others or yourself. Avoid trifling Conversation.
 
Order: Let all your Things have their Places. Let each Part of your Business have its Time.
 
Resolution: Resolve to perform what you ought. Perform without fail what you resolve.
 
Frugality: Make no Expense but to do good to others or yourself; i.e. Waste nothing.
 
Industry: Lose no Time. Be always employed in something useful. Cut off all unnecessary Actions.
 
Sincerity: Use no hurtful Deceit. Think innocently and justly; and, if you speak, speak accordingly.
 
Justice: Wrong none, by doing Injuries or omitting the Benefits that are your Duty.
 
Moderation: Avoid Extremes. Forbear resenting Injuries so much as you think they deserve.
 
Cleanliness: Tolerate no Uncleanness in Body, Clothes or Habitation.
 
Tranquility: Be not disturbed at Trifles, or at Accidents common or unavoidable.
 
Chastity: Rarely pursue sexual pleasure or indulgence but for Health or Offspring; Never to
Dullness, Weakness, or the Injury of your own or another's Peace or Reputation.
 
Humility: Imitate Jesus and Socrates.
 
In Objectivism
 
To live, man must hold three fundamental values that one develops and achieves in life: Reason, Purpose, and Self-Esteem.
These values are achieved by passionate and consistent action and the virtues are the policies for achieving those fundamental values.
 
Ayn Rand
 
Ayn Rand describes seven virtues: rationality, productiveness, pride, independence, integrity, honesty and justice.
 
Moral perfection is the full and relentless use of your mind, not the extent of your knowledge, but the acceptance of reason as an absolute.
 
In modern psychology
 
Character Strengths and Virtues have "a surprising amount of similarity across cultures and strongly indicate a historical and cross-cultural convergence."
These six categories of virtue are courage, justice, humanity, temperance, transcendence, and wisdom. Some psychologists suggest that these virtues are adequately grouped into simply: Cognitive Strengths, Temperance Strengths, and Social Strengths.
 ___________

SEVEN PENANCES to prevent "The Seven Sins of Memory"
 
While attending a science conference in Orlando, Florida in 2004, Scott S. Haraburda heard the author present the seven sins of memory to U.S. Army scientists and program managers. After conducting several experiments to validate Dr. Schacter's identification of these fundamental transgressions, Haraburda developed actions to help us improve our memories, which he termed 'penances.'

(To repent is to rethink and to make positive change.)
 
Obtain information quickly after an event, when it’s fresh in people’s minds.
Use a prioritized task list.
Take notes from important events, including meeting minutes.
Record important events and milestones daily.
Use neutrally worded questions when soliciting information.
Understand the basis or perspective of the person providing the information.
Understand and recognize the symptoms of PTS.
 
Theological virtues - in theology and Christian philosophy, are the character qualities associated with salvation, resulting from the grace of God, which enlightens the human mind.
 
*Since most Holy Books were written and/or altered to promote the beliefs of religious leaders and/or false prophets for their own benefit, I will caution all followers to scutinize what is written - and  presented as the "absolute truth".
False teachers and prophets have always  "put words in Gods mouth" for their own benefit and vainglory!
 
In reality, only Nature and Nature's Creator  knows the "Ultimate Reality" and the "Absolute Truth". We are all naturally endowed with the Spirit of God/Good and the gift of divine discernment; therefore, trust in the Spirit of God/Good in you for Wisdom! 
Have faith in God/Good - be persuaded by God/Good - not by man!
 
 
Universal Character Flaws, Wrong Conduct, Sins, and Vices​
A​ll 7.3 Billion plus Human Beings on Earth share the need to meet their needs in effective and efficient ways. 
The human conscience guides and directs all healthy human beings. 
 
A healthy conscience (human spirit) knows the difference between right and wrong - good and evil.
 
An unhealthy conscience (human spirit) has no internal spiritual guidance or direction;
it follows no rules or laws that will inhibit bad or unjust behavior; and, it feels no guilt or remorse.
 
Vices as opposite to virtues:
 
Vice is the habitual, repeated practice of wrongdoing. One way of organizing the vices is as the corruption of the virtues. Aristotle described a vice as either a deficiency or excess of a virtue. 
 
Virtues can have several opposites. Virtues can be considered as the mean between two extremes, as the Latin maxim dictates "in medio stat virtus - in the centre lies virtue".
For instance, both cowardice and rashness are opposites of courage; contrary to prudence are both over-caution and insufficient caution;
the opposites of pride (a virtue) are undue humility and excessive vanity.
A more "modern" virtue, tolerance, can be considered the mean between the two extremes of narrow-mindedness on the one hand and over-acceptance on the other.
Vices can therefore be identified as the opposites of virtues - but with the caveat that each virtue could have many different opposites, all distinct from each other.
 
SEVEN DEADLY SINS:
 
The seven deadly sins, also known as the capital vices or cardinal sins, are usually given as wrath, greed, sloth, pride, lust, envy, and gluttony.
Each is a form of Idolatry-of-Self wherein the subjective reigns over the objective.
 
In the Book of Proverbs 6:16-19, among the verses traditionally associated with King Solomon, it states that the Lord specifically regards "six things the Lord hateth, and seven that are an abomination unto Him", namely:
 
A proud look
A lying tongue
Hands that shed innocent blood
A heart that devises wicked plots
Feet that are swift to run into mischief
A deceitful witness that uttereth lies
Him that soweth discord among brethren
 
Another list, given this time in Galatians 5:19-21, includes more of the traditional seven sins, although the list is substantially longer: adultery, fornication, uncleanness, lasciviousness, idolatry, sorcery, hatred, variance, emulations, wrath, strife, seditions, heresies, envyings, murders, drunkenness, revellings, "and such like".
 
The Seven Deadly Sins were translated into the Latin of Western Christianity, thus becoming part of the Western tradition's spiritual pietas (or Catholic devotions), as follows:
 
Gluttony (selfishness)
Fornicatio (fornication, lust)
Avaritia (avarice/greed)
Superbia (hubris, pride)
Tristitia (sorrow/despair/despondency)
Ira (wrath)
Vanagloria (vainglory)
Acedia (sloth)
 
These "evil thoughts" can be categorized into three types: lustful appetite (gluttony, fornication, and avarice); irascibility (wrath); and, mind-related (vainglory, sorrow, pride, and discouragement).
 
In AD 590, a little over two centuries after Evagrius wrote his list, Pope Gregory I revised this list to form the more common Seven Deadly Sins, as follows:
 
luxuria (lechery/lust)
gula (gluttony)
avaritia (avarice/greed)
acedia (sloth/discouragement)
ira (wrath)
invidia (envy)
superbia (pride)
 
The identification and definition of the seven deadly sins over their history has been a fluid process and the idea of what each of the seven actually encompasses has evolved over time. Additionally, as a result of semantic change: socordia sloth was substituted for acedia. In parallel order to the sins they oppose, the seven holy virtues are humility, charity, kindness, patience, chastity, temperance, and diligence (see below).
 
Historical and Modern Definitions of Sin
 
LUST
 
Lust, or lechery, is an intense and uncontrolled desire. It is usually thought of as uncontrolled sexual wants, however the word was originally a general term for desire. Therefore, lust could include the uncontrolled desire for money, food, fame, or power.
 
GLUTTONY
 
Gluttony or selfishness, is the overindulgence of anything to the point of waste. It is considered a sin if the excessive desire for food causes it to be withheld from the needy. Selfishness is placing one's own interests above the well-being or interests of others.
 
Thomas Aquinas went so far as to prepare a list of six ways to commit gluttony, comprising:
 
eating too soon
eating too expensively
eating too much
eating too eagerly
eating too daintily
eating wildly
 
GREED
 
Greed or covetousness, is, like lust and gluttony, a sin of excess. However, greed (as seen by the Church) is applied to a very excessive or rapacious desire and pursuit of material possessions. Thomas Aquinas wrote, "Greed is a sin against God, just as all mortal sins, in as much as man condemns things eternal for the sake of temporal things."

Hoarding of materials or objects, theft and robbery, especially by means of coercion, violence, trickery, deception, manipulation, abuse of authority are all actions that may be inspired by Greed. Such misdeeds can include simony, where one attempts to purchase or sell sacraments, including Holy Orders and, therefore, positions of authority in the Church hierarchy.
 
Greed is an inordinate desire to acquire or possess more than one needs.
 
SLOTH
 
Sloth can entail different vices. While sloth is sometimes defined as physical laziness, spiritual laziness is emphasized. Failing to develop spiritually will lead to becoming guilty of sloth.
 
Sloth has also been defined as a failure to do things that one should do. By this definition, evil exists when good men fail to act.
 
Edmund Burke (1729-1797) wrote in Present Discontents (II. 78) "When bad men combine, the good must associate; else they will fall, one by one, an unpitied sacrifice in a contemptible struggle."
 
Over time, the "acedia" in Pope Gregory's order was believed to be the failure to utilize one's talents and gifts.
 
WRATH
 
Wrath (Latin, ira), also known as "rage", may be described as inordinate and uncontrolled feelings of hatred and anger. Wrath, in its purest form, presents with self-destructiveness, violence, and hate that may provoke feuds that can go on for centuries. Example: religious wars over the last millenniums of recorded history.
 
Wrath may persist long after the person who did another a grievous wrong is dead. Feelings of anger can manifest in different ways, including impatience, revenge, and self-destructive behavior, such as drug abuse or suicide.
 
Wrath is the only sin not necessarily associated with selfishness or self-interest, although one can of course be wrathful for selfish reasons, such as jealousy (closely related to the sin of envy). Dante described vengeance as "love of justice perverted to revenge and spite".
 
To spite is to intentionally annoy, hurt, or upset. Spiteful words or actions are delivered in such a way that it is clear that the person is delivering them just to annoy, hurt, or upset.  When the intent to annoy, hurt, or upset is shown subtly, behavior is considered catty.
 
ENVY
 
Envy (Latin, invidia), like greed and lust, is characterized by an insatiable desire. Envy is similar to jealousy in that they both feel discontent towards someone's traits, status, abilities, or rewards. The difference is the envious also desire the entity and covet it – desiring something that belongs to someone else.
 
Envy can be directly related to the Ten Commandments, specifically, "Neither shall you desire... anything that belongs to your neighbour." Dante defined this as "a desire to deprive other men of theirs". Aquinas described envy as "sorrow for another's good".
 
PRIDE
 
Pride (Latin, superbia), or hubris (Greek), is considered, on almost every list, the original and most serious of the seven deadly sins: the source of the others. It is identified as believing that one is essentially better than others, failing to acknowledge the accomplishments of others, and excessive admiration of the personal self (especially holding self out of proper position toward God); it also includes vainglory which is unjustified boasting. Dante's definition of pride was "love of self - perverted to hatred and contempt for one's neighbour". Pride is the deadliest of all the sins and leads directly to the damnation.
 
In perhaps the best-known example, the story of Lucifer, pride (his desire to compete with God) was what caused his fall from Heaven, and his resultant transformation into Satan.
Evil is pride at its worst; it wants to destroy Good for its own personal gain and glory.
 
SIKHISM
 
In Sikhism, the Five Thieves are the five major weaknesses of the human personality at variance with its spiritual essence, and are known as "thieves" because they steal a person's common sense. These five thieves are kaam (lust), krodh (rage), lobh (greed), moh (attachment) and hankaar (ego). The word "evil" here may be understood to represent the connotation of Punjabi paap "sin", dokh "defect" or kilbikh "defilement".
 
KLESHAS
 
Kleshas, in Buddhism, are mental states that cloud the mind and manifest in unwholesome actions. Kleshas include states of mind such as anxiety, fear, anger, jealousy, desire, depression, etc.
 
ABHIDHAMMA
 
Abhidhamma: Ten defilements and unwholesome roots:
greed (lobha)
hate (dosa)
delusion (moha)
conceit (māna)
wrong views (micchāditthi)
doubt (vicikicchā)
torpor (thīnaṃ)
restlessness (uddhaccaṃ)
shamelessness (ahirikaṃ)
recklessness (anottappaṃ)
 
THE FIVE KLESHAS OR POISONS:
 
Lack of discernment; lack of understanding and knowledge; confusion; bewilderment; and, delusion.
 
Attachment to what we like; desire; and, passion.
 
Aversion to what we don’t like and to what prevents us from getting what we like; anger; and, hatred.
 
Having an inflated opinion of oneself and a disrespectful attitude toward others; arrogance; and, conceit.
 
Being unable to bear the accomplishments or good fortune of others.
 
According to a 2009 study by a Jesuit scholar, the most common deadly sin confessed by men is lust, and for women, pride. It was unclear whether these differences were due to different rates of commission, or different views on what "counts" or should be confessed.
 
HINDUISM
 
In Hindu theology, Arishadvarga are the six passions of mind or desire: kama (lust), krodha (anger), lobh (greed), moha (attachment), mada or ahankar (pride), and matsarya (jealousy); the negative characteristics of which prevent man from attaining moksha or salvation.
 
These are the fundamental tenets of Kali Yuga. The more each individual fights them, the longer will be the life of dying Dharma in this yuga.
 
kama — lust
krodha — anger
lobh — greed
moha — delusory emotional attachment or temptation
mada or ahankara — pride, hubris
matsarya — envy, jealousy
 
SEVEN SOCIAL SINS:
 
Seven Social Sins, sometimes called the Seven Blunders of the World, is a list that Mohandas Karamchand Gandhi rationalized. The Seven Sins are:
 
Wealth without work.
Pleasure without conscience.
Knowledge without character.
Commerce without morality.
Science without humanity.
Worship without sacrifice.
Politics without principle.
 
THE SEVEN SINS OF MEMORY:
 
The Seven Sins of Memory: How the Mind Forgets and Remembers is a book (ISBN 0-618-21919-6) by Daniel Schacter, former chair of Harvard University's Psychology Department and a leading memory researcher.
 
The book revolves around the theory that "the seven sins of memory" are similar to the Seven deadly sins, and that if one tries to avoid committing these sins, it will help to improve one's ability to remember. He argues that these features of human memory are not necessarily bad, and that they actually serve a useful purpose in memory. For instance, persistence is one of the sins of memory that can lead to things like post-traumatic stress syndrome. However persistence is also necessary for long-term memory, and so it is essential.
 
Schacter asserts that "memory's malfunctions can be divided into seven fundamental transgressions or 'sins'." These are transience, absent-mindedness, blocking, misattribution, suggestibility, bias, and persistence.
 
[*Corrupt and perverted religious leaders, politicians, terrorists, and crime organizations use the technique of parroting lies to brainwash their followers. The subconscience mind is non-discriminating; it cannot tell the difference between fact and fiction!
 
If parrotedd lies are not filtered out by the truth, knowledge, reason, and/or practical wisdom, the subconscious mind will store the information as the truth - long-term memory. Parroted lies will then become part of the belief system of the targeted victim.]
 
The first three sins of the memory are described as sins of omission, since the result is a failure to recall an idea, fact, or event.
 
The other four sins (misattribution, suggestibility, bias, and persistence) are sins of commission, meaning that there is a form of memory present, but it is not of the desired fidelity or the desired fact, event, or ideas.
 
TRANSIENCE
 
Transience refers to the general deterioration of a specific memory over time. Much more can be remembered of recent events than those further in one's past. This is especially true with episodic memory, because every time an episodic memory is recalled, it is re-encoded within the hippocampus, altering the memory each time one recalls it. Transience is caused because of interference. There are two types of interference: proactive interference (old information inhibits the ability to remember new information), and retroactive interference (new information inhibits the ability to remember old information).
 
ABSENT-MINDEDNESS
 
This form of memory breakdown involves problems at the point where attention and memory interface. Common errors of this type include misplacing keys or eyeglasses, or forgetting appointments, because at the time of encoding sufficient attention was not paid to what would later need to be recalled.
 
BLOCKING
 
Blocking is when the brain tries to retrieve or encode information, but another memory interferes with it. Blocking is a primary cause of Tip of the tongue phenomenon (a temporary inaccessibility of stored information).
 
MISATTRIBUTION
 
Misattribution is the first of the sins of commission which are discussed in the book. It entails correct recollection of information with incorrect recollection of the source of that information. For example, a person who witnesses a murder after watching a television program may incorrectly blame the murder on someone he or she saw on the television program. This error has profound consequences in legal systems because of its unacknowledged prevalence and the confidence which is often placed in the person's ability to impart correctly information critical to suspect identification.
 
SUGGESTIBILITY
 
Suggestibility is somewhat similar to misattribution, but with the inclusion of overt suggestion.
It is the acceptance of a false suggestion made by others. Memories of the past are often influenced by the manner in which they are recalled, and when subtle emphasis is placed on certain aspects which might seem likely to a specific type of memory, those emphasized aspects are sometimes incorporated into the recollection, whether or not they actually occurred.
For example, a person sees a crime being committed by a redheaded man. Subsequently, after reading in the newspaper that the crime was committed by a brown-haired man, the witness "remembers" a brown-haired man instead of a redheaded man.
 
Loftus and Palmer's work into leading questions is an example of such suggestibility.
 
BIAS
 
The sin of bias is similar to the sin of suggestibility in that one's current feelings and worldview distort remembrance of past events. This can pertain to specific incidences and the general conception one has of a certain period in one's life. This occurs partly because memories encoded while a person was feeling a certain level of arousal and a certain type of emotion come to mind more quickly when a person is in a similar mood. Thus, a contented adult might look back with fondness on his or her childhood, induced to do so by positive memories from that time which might not be actually representative of his/her average mood during his/her childhood.
 
PERSISTENCE
 
This failure of the memory system involves the unwanted recall of information that is disturbing. The remembrance can range from a blunder on the job to a truly traumatic experience, and the persistent recall can lead to formation of phobias, post-traumatic stress disorder, and even suicide in particularly disturbing or intrusive instances.
 
THE CARDINAL SIN:
 
"You shall not take the name of God in vain,
for God will not hold him guiltless who takes His name in vain."
 
Growing up, and most of my adult life, I thought that this commandment had to do with profanity; however, this may be the most misunderstood "Commandment" in the Abrahamic Religions; and, the most commonly committed sin of Major World Religions and their leaders!
The literal Hebrew interpretation is - "Do not use God's name, character, essence, or spirit for: corrupt purposes; no good causes; personal vainglory; or, personal gain.
Strategic Objectives for World Peace and Prosperity​

 
Unite all good and just people of all nations to usher in an age of world peace and prosperity.
 
Meet the universal innate needs of all people of all nations.
 
Destroy evil by enacting and enforcing universal humanitarian laws against unnatural, inhumane, unjust, and evil acts  and corrupt political and religious practices.
 
Heal international relationships with love & compassion. 
 
Prevent the destruction of the world by enacting and enforcing universal laws against nuclear proliferation; terroristic threats of nuclear war; and, the use of weapons of mass destruction.
 
Research and determine the Universal Laws of Nature and Nature’s Creator - and reach a universal agreement to determine which Supreme Laws are universally acceptable; universally unacceptable; or individually discretionary.
 
Criminalize perverted and evil religious and/or political wars; and, develop covert and overt international coalitions to enforce the laws against such wars and acts of terrorism.
 
Create a world that is based on goodwill, sharing, and cooperation.
 
Make positive changes to create a more prosperous and just world for the good  of all people.
 
Enable all people to lead pure and honorable lives - lives unmolested by terroristic acts of any kind.
 
Unify the universal spiritual expectations of all religions of the world by using divinely inspired goodness, natural laws, and practical wisdom to create a universally accepted code of ethics.
 
Teach Mankind how to live good, healthy, and happy lives and how to love God, Mother Nature, their neighbors, and themselves.
 
Transform the world into a place of beauty and perfection - in the Form of Good.
 
Foster great spiritual and ethical leaders.
 
Replace Ignorance and Evil - with Wisdom and Goodness!
 

Universal Contract with Nature and Nature's Creator​

 
There is a Universal and Unchanging contract between Mankind and Nature; this Supreme Contract is commonly called the Laws of Nature.  Obeying these Universal Laws are naturally rewarded. Violating these Unchanging Laws have natural consequences. The following are my vision for the terms of a natural contract between  Mankind, Mother Nature, and Nature's Creator:
 
 
Thou shall know and obey the Laws of Nature and/or Nature’s Creator.
 
Thou shall not use your culturally imposed religious beliefs as justification to harm or exploit another that has different or similar beliefs.
 
Thou shall not exploit the, name, character, words,  essence, or spirit of Nature’s Creator for corrupt purposes, no good causes, personal gain, or vainglory.
 
Thou shall honor and respect your family, friends, and all good and just human beings.
 
Thou shall not kill another human being without a naturally just cause.
 
Thou shall not exploit or pollute the natural resourses provided by Nature and/or Nature's Creator.
 
Thou shall honor your marital contracts and your parental duties and obligations.
 
Thou shall not steal or take more than you need for your growth, health, and happiness.
 
Thou shall not lie, deceive, manipulate, or bear false witness.
 
Thou shall not deprive another of their property or infringe on their natural rights.
 
Thou shall love Nature and Nature’s Creator.
 
Thou shall love others and joyfully share your excess wealth with those in need.
 
Thou shall love yourself by obeying the Laws of Nature and Nature's Creator.
 
*Compliance with the Laws of Nature and Nature’s Creator has natural rewards, which include growth, health, and happiness – and possibly being born again into Nature and/or the Kingdom of God!
 
________________
 
[“Love is the gifting of oneself to meet the needs of another with the growth, health, and happiness of the loved one as the ultimate concern.” – Paul E. Truitt, DVM]
________________
 
WARNINGS
 
*Noncompliance with the above natural laws will naturally result in punitive damages and/or statutory consequences – such as stunted growth, poor health, and a miserable life.
 
*Noncompliance with the Laws of Nature and Nature's Creator may  result in death of one’s body and/or one’s eternal spirit!